Among East African forests, Bwindi is a unique forest with some of the richest populations of trees, small mammals, birds, butterflies, reptiles, and moths. The park’s diverse species are partly a result of the large variations of altitude and habitat types in the park, and may also be because the forest was a refuge for species during glaciations in the Pleistocene epoch.
The park’s forests are afromontane, a rare vegetation type on the African continent Because of low-altitude to high altitude in the park. The park has more than 220 tree species and more than 100 fern species. Among these tree species in Bwindi forest there are ten very rare species that can only be seen on a safari in Uganda.
Not only does the thick forest having all these hundreds of trees, it is the home of the world half remaining mountain gorillas. The lowland and montane vegetation zones meet together here acting as the water collection center for different animal species that called this forest their home.
The park is composed of abundant, lush, fogy rainforests this type of vegetation attract a number of bird species creating a birders paradise here as well. rich vegetation of tree ferns, colorful orchids and epithetic ferns that make the scenic beauty of Bwindi Impenetrable Forest National Park.
Lowland montane rain forest is covered by mixed forest which is concentrated around its altitudes and it is characterized by canopy from plant species like Red stinkwood, Newtonia, Symphonia globulifera, East African yellow wood and Strombosia scheffleri.
Beneath the main forest there are species like Xymalos, Neoboutonia Macrocalyx, Monospora, Myrianthus holstii, Teclea nobilis and Allophylus abyssinicus
A few of the many tree species Bwindi is known for:
African brown mahogany tree
This is a very large tree that takes its time while growing up. It can grow up to 70m tall and very much straight up. It produces fine wood and medicine to us the African culture and also commonly known for its beauty that it brings in a farm. This tree creates one of the most expensive woods around the world, though the one for Uganda belongs to the Gorillas.
Ebony tree species
Widely distributed in the tropics, Uganda is privileged to have got different tree types of these in the Bwindi impenetrable national park.. The best is very heavy, almost black, and derived from heartwood only. Because of its color, durability, hardness, and ability to take a high polish, ebony is used for many things including piano keys. Here in Uganda ut belongs to the mountain gorillas only.
Mostly in the southern parts of the forest you will get different types of chrysophyllunm especially the Newtonia, prunus and entandrophragma. On Uganda safari in Bwindi, visitors can explore over 1000 flowering plant species, 110 fern species among others.
About 50 percent of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park is comprised of mixed forest including Newtonia, red stinkwood, East African yellow wood, strombosia scheffleri and symphonia globulifera. Below the forest, there are mainly Neoboutonia, Xymalos, Myrianthus holstii, Monospora and many others.
At elevation of about 1500m, about 10 percent of the area is covered by Parinariexcelsa, 11 percent at 2-00m is occupied by Newtonia buchananii; at 2200m, 8 percent of the area is covered by chrysophyllum gorungosanum while the bamboo trail is endowed by distinct vegetation including over 14 distinct vegetation types.
With all these fresh fruits, tree back ,steams, fruits a lot of fresh green leaves and foliage among others that are few in Africa and the whole world, Bwindi impenetrable national park becomes an endemic its self even before the giant gorillas.